The text is up-to-date, concise, clear, consistent, accurate, and it covers relevant topics with a national and international focus. The text also presents additional materials, such as the use of mathematics in economics, to complement the intuitive and applied sections. Finally, the text is well organized so that instructors can easily select appropriate contents to be covered in a full semester. Microeconomists constantly strive to improve the accuracy of their models of consumer and firm behaviour.

By the distribution theories we learn the determination of rewards to factors of production in the form of rent, interest, wages and profit by which distribution of wealth takes place. Unequal distribution of income will lead to unequal distribution of wealth. It will then consequently provoke reaction to achieve fair and relatively equal distribution of income/wealth in a society.

Microeconomics is also called “The Price Theory”, because it deals with the price of goods and services, rewards of the factors of production and interaction of the markets. Therefore, microeconomics explains how individual economic units such as consumers, resource owners, and business firms play their part in the working of the whole economic system. Instead of studying the whole economy, it takes a small unit of the economy and studies the economic behavior of such part in detail. This chapter examines the history, origins, and scope of microeconomics.

You have already shown the demand schedule and supply schedule in tables, it might be much clearer to show two dots on the graph to explain how to draw the curves. The textbook covers a range of issues on immigration, gender, race with facts, and no bias at the national or international focus. Examples used are relevant and are not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. These methods attempt to represent human behavior in functional mathematical language, which allows economists to develop mathematically testable models of individual markets.

While both will impact an investment portfolio, most investors focus primarily on microeconomic considerations when making their investment decisions. Yes, the performance of your portfolio hinges on both microeconomic and macroeconomic factors. Individual investors may be better off focusing on microeconomics, but macroeconomics cannot be ignored altogether. Fundamental and value investors may disagree with technical investors about the proper role of economic analysis. While it is more likely that microeconomics will impact individual investments, macroeconomic factors can affect entire portfolios.

What are the Scope of Microeconomics?

Terminology and the flow of each chapter is consistent with each other. As mentioned previously there are some concepts that could easily be linked across chapters. The authors are consistent in that this content does not appear and disappear readily. I would have talked about elasticity before government involvement and international trade much earlier when looking at consumer and producer surplus.

Thus, the study of the economic performance of households, firms, and industries creates the subject matter of microeconomics. Microeconomics is concerned with demand analysis i.e. individual consumer behavior, and supply analysis i.e. individual producer behavior. The material is presented very clearly and in a very approachable style.

At a price above equilibrium, there is a surplus of quantity supplied compared to quantity demanded. The model of supply and demand predicts that for given supply and demand curves, price and quantity will stabilize at the price that makes quantity supplied equal to quantity demanded. Similarly, demand-and-supply theory predicts a new price-quantity combination from a shift in demand (as to the figure), or in supply. That is, the higher the price at which the good can be sold, the more of it producers will supply, as in the figure. Just as on the demand side, the position of the supply can shift, say from a change in the price of a productive input or a technical improvement.

Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics: An Overview

This becomes even more of an issue when looking at the graphical representation of profit maximization in later topics. For example, the text provides one of the best explanations for the concept of perfectly elastic demand that I have ever read in a principles textbook. I put special focus on topics that students usually have troubles grasping, such as elasticity, and I am excited to introduce this textbook to my principles class this winter and see how students react to it.

Welfare Policies:

This can be connected to the Chapter on International Trade later on. I like how the cost curves and product curves are well explained in chapter 7. The Chapter on Oligopoly could be expanded with sub topics as price wars and non price competition. Since this market is a very interesting market more examples from different countries could be used. In the chapter on Monopoly a dead weight loss diagram comparing perfect competition and monopoly firms, a diagram to show Allocative inefficiency and sub topic on price discrimination would complete that chapter well.

Principles of Economics 2e covers the scope and sequence of most introductory economics courses. The text includes many current examples, which are handled in a politically equitable way. The outcome is a balanced approach to the theory and application of economics concepts. The second edition has been thoroughly revised to increase clarity, update data and current event impacts, and incorporate the feedback from many reviewers and adopters. The textbook breaks the topics up in an appropriate matter that makes it easy for the instructor to «bounce» around the textbook as they see fit. The textbook also mentions how the material to be covered in a particular section may relate to other topics within the book.

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The reward is to be given to the owners of the factors of production in the form of wages and salaries, rent, interest, profit, etc. Business pricing strategies correlate strongly with microeconomic factors. The ideal, or equilibrium price point exists at the point at which quantity supplied in the market exactly equals demand.

The «Law of Supply» states that, in general, a rise in price leads to an expansion in supply and a fall in price leads to a contraction in supply. Here as well, the determinants of supply, such as price of substitutes, cost of production, technology applied and various factors of inputs of production are all taken to be constant for a specific time period of evaluation of supply. Strategic behavior, such as the interactions among sellers in a market where they are few, is a significant part of microeconomics but is not emphasized in price theory. Price theorists focus on competition believing it to be a reasonable description of most markets that leaves room to study additional aspects of tastes and technology.

Therefore, quantity of production of goods is decided by different firms individually. For this purpose, a firm tries to find optimum combination of factors. Each student of Economics is well aware of with the four factors of production like land, labor, capital and entrepreneur. Thus, microeconomics under the topic theory of distribution talks about the procedures and basis of pricing of different factors in different market structures. It explains how the output produced is shared among those persons who cooperate in the production of the output.

Theory of Consumer Behavior

First, resources or means of production (land, labour, capital goods such as machinery, technical knowledge) are scarce or limited. Secondly, what is applied to the production of a certain commodity or service is unavailable for the production of another, alternative one. But human wants for the consumption or use of goods and services (food, clothing, housing, education, entertainment) are countless and unlimited. Economics is the study of how people (or organizations) can choose to use scarce or limited resources to produce various goods and services and distribute them to various members of society for them to consume.

For example, after Chapter 3, the authors add Chapter 4 which mainly focuses the policy application of Chapter 3. And there are also some contents, such as Minimum Wage, repeating in Chapter 14. Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 introduce the negative and positive externalities, and it might be better to combine these two chapters into one chapter. The textbook begins with a question to Facebook, which and catch students’ attentions as they use it often. And this question can also make student realize that Economics is everywhere. For example, Chapter 12 introduces the environmental protection, and it uses the example of bottle bills, which is what we need to pay in Oregon.

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